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Anthony Amos
Anthony Amos

21st Century Gis Software Free Download __EXCLUSIVE__


Water scarcity is one of the defining issues of the 21st century. In its Global Risks 2013 report, the World Economic Forum identified water supply crises as one of the highest impact and most likely risks facing the planet. With the support of a diverse group of partners, the World Resources Institute built Aqueduct to help companies, investors, governments, and communities better understand where and how water risks are emerging around the world.




21st century gis software free download



OpusXenta recognizes the challenges that cemeteries in the 21st Century are facing, which is why we are proud to offer cemeteries the free mapmakr tool, which integrates with any record management system such as byondpro. The team is also on hand to provide support and guidance to ensure that cemeteries can take full advantage of the practical functions included within the free mapping tool.


In the 20th and 21st centuries, land surveying has relied on the same basic methods and principles of measurement that have existed for thousands of years. The development of technologies such as global positioning systems (GPS), GIS software, laser scanners, and terrestrial scanning have made land surveying more efficient and accurate, as well as faster and easier. The computerization of ancient methods has propelled the land surveying industry forward, and continues to give this industry an important place in the world.


Technical limits to hard protection are expected to be reached under high emission scenarios (RCP8.5) beyond 2100 (high confidence) and biophysical limits to EbA may arise during the 21st century, but economic and social barriers arise well before the end of the century (medium confidence). Economic challenges to hard protection increase with higher sea levels and will make adaptation unaffordable before technical limits are reached (high confidence). Drivers other than SLR are expected to contribute more to biophysical limits of EbA. For corals, limits may be reached during this century, due to ocean acidification and ocean warming, and for tidal wetlands due to pollution and infrastructure limiting their inland migration. Limits to accommodation are expected to occur well before limits to protection occur. Limits to retreat are uncertain, reflecting research gaps. Social barriers (including governance challenges) to adaptation are already encountered. 4.4.2.2, 4.4.2.3., 4.4.2.3.2, 4.4.2.5, 4.4.2.6, 4.4.3, Cross-Chapter Box 9


Despite the large uncertainty in late 21st century SLR, progress in adaptation planning and implementation is feasible today and may be economically beneficial. Many coastal decisions with time horizons of decades to over a century are made today (e.g., critical infrastructure, coastal protection works, city planning, etc.) and accounting for relative SLR can improve these decisions. Decision-analysis methods specifically targeting situations of large uncertainty are available and, combined with suitable planning, public participation and conflict resolution processes, can improve outcomes (high confidence; 4.4.4.2, 4.4.4.3). For example, adaptation pathway analysis recognises and enables sequenced long-term decision making in the face of dynamic coastal risk characterised by deep uncertainty (medium evidence, high agreement; 4.4.4.3.4). The use of these decision-analysis tools can be integrated into statutory land use or spatial planning provisions to formalise these decisions and enable effective implementation by relevant governing authorities (4.4.4.2).


For densely populated urban low elevation areas, including continental and island cities and megacities, hard protection has played and will continue to play the central role in response strategies (4.4.2.2, Box 4.1). In general, it is technologically feasible and economically efficient to protect large parts of cities against 21st century SLR (high confidence; 4.4.2.2.4, 4.4.2.7). However, questions of affordability remain for poorer and developing regions (4.3.3.4, 4.4.2.2.3). In cities, advance can offer a way to finance coastal protection through revenues generated from newly created land (4.4.2.4), but raises equity concerns with regard to the distribution of costs and access to the new land (4.4.2.4.6). Where space is available, EbA can supplement hard protection (4.4.2.3), except in situations where other human interventions, like infrastructure and pollution, interfere with EbA, especially for RCP8.5 (Cross-Chapter Box 9). Retreat may currently be favoured over rebuilding in the aftermath of major flooding disasters, but in densely populated areas protected by hard infrastructure, general retreat need not be considered until later in the century once it is known whether or not SLR will reach the higher end of the projections (1.1 m or more by 2100; 4.4.2.6).


Sea level changes have been discussed throughout the various IPCC assessment reports as SLR is a key feature of climate change. Complex interactions between the oceans and ice sheets only recently have been recognised as important drivers of processes that can lead to rapid dynamical changes in the ice sheets. Understanding of basal melt below the ice shelves, ice calving processes and glacial hydrological processes was also limited. Projections of future sea level in the IPCC 4th Assessment Report (AR4; Lemke et al., 20074) were presented with the caveat that dynamical ice sheet processes were not accounted for, as our physical understanding of these processes was too rudimentary and no literature could be assessed (Bindoff et al., 20075). In AR5 (Church et al., 20136), a first attempt was made to quantify the dynamic contribution of the ice sheets, although still with modeling based on limited physcis, relying mainly on an extrapolation of existing observations (Little et al., 20137) and a single process based case study (Bindschadler et al., 20138). Here the focus is on sea level changes around coastlines and low-lying islands, updating the GMSL rise by including a new estimate of the dynamic contribution of Antarctica. The mechanism driving past and contemporary sea level changes and episodic extremes of sea level is explained, and confidence in regional projections of future sea level over the 21st century and beyond is assessed.


Observations of rapid bedrock uplift in the Amundsen Sea, low viscosity of the underlying mantle, and short GIA response times to glacial unloading suggest ice-Earth interactions could be important there (Barletta et al., 2018475). Bedrock uplift and reduced gravitational attraction between the ice sheet and ocean as an ice margin loses mass reduces RSL at the grounding line, promoting stability and providing a negative feedback on retreat (Adhikari et al., 2014476; Gomez et al., 2015477). Using a high-resolution ice sheet-Earth model, Larour et al. (2019) showed that long-term future retreat of Amundsen Sea grounding lines are slowed by these processes, but the effect is found to be minimal until after 2250. This agrees with other recent modelling accounting for ice-Earth interactions, including the viscoelastic Earth response to changing ice loads and self-gravitation (Gomez et al., 2015478; Konrad et al., 2015479; Pollard et al., 2017480). These studies also showed a small negative feedback on future retreat over the next several centuries, particularly under strong climate forcing. However, the viscosity structure of the Earth under the AIS is not well resolved, and lateral variations in Earth structure could impact these results (Hay et al., 2017481). Based on these consistent model results, and new observational evidence that PIG has been retreating on reverse-sloped bedrock for a half-century or more (Smith et al., 2017), ice-Earth interactions are not expected to substantially slow GMSL rise from marine-based ice in Antarctica over the 21st century (medium confidence). However, these processes could become important for GMSL rise on multi-century and longer time scales.


Atmospheric forcing is also becoming increasingly recognised to be an important factor for the future of the AIS. A sustained (15 days) melt event over the Ross Sea sector of the WAIS in 2016 illustrated both the connectivity of Antarctica to the tropics and El Niño, and the possibility that future meltwater production on ice shelf surfaces could change in the near future (Nicolas et al., 2017487). This was highlighted by Trusel et al. (2015)488, who evaluated the future expansion of surface meltwater using the snow component in the RACMO2 regional atmospheric model (Kuipers Munneke et al., 2012489) and output from CMIP5 GCMs. Under RCP8.5, they found a substantial expansion of surface meltwater production on ice shelves late in the 21st century that exceed melt rates observed before the 2002 collapse of the Larsen B Ice Shelf. Surface meltwater is important for both ice dynamics and SMB due to its potential to reduce albedo, saturate the firn layer, deepen surface crevasses, and to cause flexural stresses that can contribute to ice shelf break-up (hydrofracturing) (Banwell et al., 2013490; Kuipers Munneke et al., 2014491). The presence of surface meltwater does not necessarily lead to immediate ice shelf collapse (Bell et al., 2017b492; Kingslake et al., 2017493), although surface meltwater was a precursor on ice shelves which have collapsed (Scambos et al., 2004494; Banwell et al., 2013495). This dichotomy illustrates the uncertain role of meltwater and the need for additional study. When and if melt rates will be sufficiently high in future warming scenarios to trigger widespread hydrofracturing is a key question, because the loss of ice shelves is associated with the onset of marine ice sheet instabilities (Cross-chapter Box 8 in Chapter 3). Based on the single modelling study by Trusel et al. (2015)496, it is not expected that widespread ice shelf loss will occur


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