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Metallogenic Epochs And Provinces Of India Pdf 12


Metallogenic Epochs and Provinces of India




Metallogenic epochs and provinces are concepts used in economic geology to describe the temporal and spatial distribution of mineral deposits in relation to the geological history and tectonic setting of a region. A metallogenic epoch is a period of time during which a significant concentration of deposits of one metal or a group of metals formed in one or more provinces. A metallogenic province is a notable concentration of deposits of a certain metal or metals within a large region or belt with one of its dimensions reaching as much as 1000 km or more.


India is a country with a long and complex geological history, which has resulted in the formation of various types of mineral deposits ranging from precious metals such as gold and silver to base metals such as copper, lead, zinc, iron, and manganese, as well as rare metals such as molybdenum, tungsten, tin, and uranium. India also hosts significant resources of coal, oil, gas, bauxite, chromite, limestone, and other industrial minerals. The distribution and genesis of these mineral deposits are closely related to the evolution of the Indian subcontinent, which can be divided into four major geological domains: the Archean craton, the Proterozoic mobile belts, the Phanerozoic sedimentary basins, and the Himalayan orogenic belt.


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In this article, we will briefly review the main metallogenic epochs and provinces of India, based on the classification proposed by Dwivedi and Pramoda Raj. We will also provide some examples of important mineral deposits in each province.


Precambrian Metallogenic Epoch




The Precambrian metallogenic epoch spans from about 4.0 billion years ago to 541 million years ago, and covers the Archean and Proterozoic eons. During this epoch, India was part of several supercontinents, such as Vaalbara, Ur, Kenorland, Columbia, Rodinia, and Gondwana. The Precambrian metallogenic epoch is characterized by the formation of various types of mineral deposits associated with magmatic, metamorphic, sedimentary, and hydrothermal processes. Some of the major metallogenic provinces of this epoch are:



  • Gold Province of Karnataka-Andhra Pradesh-Tamil Nadu: This province comprises the regions of Hutti-Kolar-Anantpur-Gadag-Wynad, which host some of the oldest and richest gold deposits in India. These deposits are mainly associated with Archean greenstone belts and granitoids, and are classified as orogenic gold deposits. The most famous example is the Kolar Gold Field (KGF), which has produced over 800 tonnes of gold since 1880. Other examples are the Hutti Gold Mine (HGM), which has produced over 50 tonnes of gold since 1902, and the Ramagiri Gold Field (RGF), which has produced over 3 tonnes of gold since 1884.



  • Copper Province of Singhbhum: This province comprises the region of Singhbhum in Jharkhand state, which hosts some of the largest copper deposits in India. These deposits are mainly associated with Proterozoic volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) systems, which formed in rift-related basins along the eastern margin of the Indian craton. The most famous example is the Mosabani-Maheboobnagar-Rakha-Chapri-Surda (MMRCS) belt, which has produced over 200 million tonnes of copper ore since 1905. Other examples are the Kendadih-Konar-Khatanga (KKK) belt, which has produced over 100 million tonnes of copper ore since 1910, and the Turamdih-Tamapahar-Narwapahar (TTN) belt, which has produced over 50 million tonnes of copper ore since 1927.



  • Copper Province of Khetri-Pur-Banera: This province comprises the region of Khetri-Pur-Banera in Rajasthan state, which hosts some of the largest copper deposits in India. These deposits are mainly associated with Proterozoic porphyry copper systems, which formed in arc-related settings along the western margin of the Indian craton. The most famous example is the Khetri Copper Complex (KCC), which has produced over 200 million tonnes of copper ore since 1967. Other examples are the Dariba-Rajpura-Bethumni (DRB) belt, which has produced over 100 million tonnes of copper ore since 1977, and the Kolihan-Chandmari-Madhan-Kailash (KCMK) belt, which has produced over 50 million tonnes of copper ore since 1982.




Late Palaeozoic Metallogenic Epoch




The Late Palaeozoic metallogenic epoch spans from about 359 million years ago to 252 million years ago, and covers the Carboniferous and Permian periods. During this epoch, India was part of the Gondwana supercontinent, which began to break up in the late Permian. The Late Palaeozoic metallogenic epoch is characterized by the formation of various types of mineral deposits associated with sedimentary and hydrothermal processes. Some of the major metallogenic provinces of this epoch are:



  • Coal Province of Damodar Valley: This province comprises the region of Damodar Valley in Jharkhand and West Bengal states, which hosts some of the largest coal deposits in India. These deposits are mainly associated with Permian Gondwana basins, which formed in rift-related settings along the eastern margin of the Indian craton. The most famous example is the Raniganj Coal Field (RCF), which has produced over 12 billion tonnes of coal since 1774. Other examples are the Jharia Coal Field (JCF), which has produced over 10 billion tonnes of coal since 1894, and the Bokaro Coal Field (BCF), which has produced over 5 billion tonnes of coal since 1916.



  • Uranium Province of Cuddapah Basin: This province comprises the region of Cuddapah Basin in Andhra Pradesh state, which hosts some of the largest uranium deposits in India. These deposits are mainly associated with Proterozoic unconformity-related systems, which formed in intracratonic basins along the southern margin of the Indian craton. The most famous example is the Tummalapalle Uranium Deposit (TUD), which has a resource of over 150,000 tonnes of uranium oxide. Other examples are the Lambapur-Peddagattu Uranium Deposit (LPUD), which has a resource of over 50,000 tonnes of uranium oxide, and the Chitrial Uranium Deposit (CUD), which has a resource of over 10,000 tonnes of uranium oxide.



  • Evaporite Province of Rajasthan: This province comprises the region of Rajasthan state, which hosts some of the largest evaporite deposits in India. These deposits are mainly associated with Permian Zechstein basins, which formed in marine settings along the western margin of the Indian craton. The most famous example is the Sambhar Salt Lake (SSL), which has a resource of over 1 billion tonnes of salt. Other examples are the Didwana Salt Lake (DSL), which has a resource of over 500 million tonnes of salt, and the Lunkaransar Salt Lake (LSL), which has a resource of over 100 million tonnes of salt.




Late Mesozoic to Early Tertiary Metallogenic Epoch




The Late Mesozoic to Early Tertiary metallogenic epoch spans from about 201 million years ago to 56 million years ago, and covers the Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Paleogene periods. During this epoch, India was part of the Gondwana supercontinent, which continued to break up and drift northward until it collided with Asia in the late Paleogene. The Late Mesozoic to Early Tertiary metallogenic epoch is characterized by the formation of various types of mineral deposits associated with magmatic, sedimentary, and hydrothermal processes. Some of the major metallogenic provinces of this epoch are:



  • Manganese Province of Central India: This province comprises the regions of Nagpur-Bhandara-Balaghat-Chhindwara in Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh states, which host some of the largest manganese deposits in India. These deposits are mainly associated with Jurassic-Cretaceous continental flood basalts (CFB) systems, which formed in rift-related settings along the central part of the Indian craton. The most famous example is the Nagpur-Bhandara Manganese Belt (NBMB), which has produced over 10 million tonnes of manganese ore since 1896. Other examples are the Balaghat Manganese Belt (BBMB), which has produced over 5 million tonnes of manganese ore since 1903, and the Chhindwara Manganese Belt (CBMB), which has produced over 2 million tonnes of manganese ore since 1912.



  • Bauxite Province of Eastern Ghats: This province comprises the regions of Srikakulam-Visakhapatnam-East Godavari in Andhra Pradesh state and Koraput-Kalahandi-Rayagada in Odisha state, which host some of the largest bauxite deposits in India. These deposits are mainly associated with Cretaceous-Paleogene lateritic systems, which formed in tropical to subtropical climates along the eastern margin of the Indian craton. The most famous example is the Panchpatmali Bauxite Deposit (PBD), which has a resource of over 300 million tonnes of bauxite. Other examples are the Niyamgiri Bauxite Deposit (NBD), which has a resource of over 100 million tonnes of bauxite, and the Bodai-Daldali Bauxite Deposit (BDBD), which has a resource of over 50 million tonnes of bauxite.



Oil and Gas Province of Western Offshore: This province comprises the region of Western Offshore in Arabian Sea, which hosts some of the largest oil and gas deposits in India. These deposits are mainly associated with Cretaceous-Paleogene passive margin systems, which formed in marine settings along the western margin of the Indian craton. The most famous example is the Bombay High Oil and Gas Field (BHOGF), which has produced over 1 billion barrels of oil and over 100 billion cubic meters of gas since 1976. Other examples are the Bassein Gas Field (BGF), which has produced over 50 billion cubic meters of gas since 1988, and the Panna-Mukta Oil and Gas Field (PMOGF), which has p


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